The purpose of the Western Christendom Travel Seminar was to give an opportunity to study the history of Western Christendom in the countries and cities where it took place. Consonant with the purposes of the seminar, it was mandatory that each seminary student prepare a paper on some assigned segment of the history of the church to be covered by the travel seminar. These papers are archived in the Cook Library collection and may be read upon request.

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Neueste Zugänge

  • Main stage surmounted by a statue of Caesar 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    As the early Christians were persecuted for their unwillingness to acknowledge the ultimate lordship of Caesar, so the Huguenots were persecuted with equal ferocity for not bowing to the demands of a sovereign monarch and ...
  • Interior of the Roman theater 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    The House of Orange also held properties in what is now Germany and the Netherlands, thus giving William the full title of Orange-Nassau. As stadtholder he led the low countries in the war against Spain (the 80 year war). ...
  • Façade of the Roman theater, Orange 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    The city of Orange boasts the best preserved Roman theater in all of Europe. It now is the scene of festivals begun in 1902 and operatic festivals begun in 1971. The city of Orange is intimately connected with the Huguenot ...
  • A triumphal arch from the first century A.D. 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    In a city which boasted many of the luxuries of Rome.
  • Temple of Augustus and Livia, Vienne 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
  • Temple of Augustus and Livia, Vienne 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    Its initial preservation is the result of being turned into the church of Notre-Dame-de-la-vie in the 5th century.
  • Interior of the Cathedral of Vienne 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    While a genius offering the first accurate description of the human pulmonary system Servetus also engaged in theology, writing Christianismi Restututio (The Restoration of Christianity). Because it questioned the Trinity ...
  • The Cathedral of the Vienne 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    A contemporary of Calvin was Michael Servetus who served Pierre Palmier, archbishop of Vienna as personal physician.
  • St. Pierre 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    Calvin's church in Geneva. Calvin's importance for the growth of the Huguenots cannot be overestimated. Prior WCTS Reformation tours have thoroughly explored his role in Geneva and can be found in WCTS volumes of 1967, 1969, 1973.
  • Perhaps a room for Papal audiences? 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    A contradiction to the absolute sovereignty of the monarchy Avignon was seized by Louis XIV in 1663. Subsequently Papal rule resumed until after the French Revolution when it was permanantly ceded to France.
  • Tapestries on the walls of the palais de papes 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    Avigon was the Papal residence during the "Babylonian captivity" from 1309-1376.
  • The palais de papes 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    Only ten kilometers from Nimes Avignon was under Papal rule until 1791
  • Le Pont d'Avignon 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
  • Pont du Gard 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    A first century A.D. aqueduct to bring over 50,000 gallons of water a day to Nimes.
  • First Century A.D. Roman Temple, Nimes 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    In 1567 in Nimes there was a Huguenot massacre of Catholics, in 1685 after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes it was also the scene of a massacre of Huguenots.
  • Musee du Desert 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    Artifacts of the persecuted church are found in the museum. "Desert" refers to the period between the revocation of the Edcit of Nantes (1685) and the Edict of Toleration (1797).
  • Languedoc landscape 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    Persecution followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes but in 1715 Antoine Court gathered a group of Huguenots to plan for the restoration of Huguenot worship (the Church in the Desert).
  • Risister in tower of Constance 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    The inscription "resister" (resist) scratched in the stone of her cell by Huguenot Marie Durand.
  • Stephen M. Norden 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    Author of "French Protestantism after the Edict of Nantes." Found in the above. This photo makes clear that Aigue Morte was once a coastal port from whence galleys were supplied with Huguenot prisoners.
  • Charles A. Wiessener 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1978)
    Author of "The Religious Wars of France 1562-1598" as found in the bound volume of "Seminar Papers of 1978," Donald J. Bruggink, editor, in the library of Western Theological Seminary.

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