• Adam and Eve 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of Adam and Eve in the catacomb of Pietro e Marcellino.
    • Adventus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Immediately below the upper central panel of the sarcophagus of Junius Bassius is an Adventus, innocent enough to our eyes but within the context of imperial iconography it represented and emphasized Christ as ruler. ...
    • Alexander Severus (222-235 AD) 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The age was epitomized by Alexander Severus (222-235) who, prior to becoming emperor, had attended the lectures of Origen in Antioch, and who as emperor performed his devotions before statues of the best of the deified ...
    • Altar, apse, and Bishop's chair 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Again, the imperial iconography is clear, for even as the Caesar sat in his basilica to deliver the law, and even as every business and governmental transaction to be legal had to take place in a basilica before a ...
    • Ambo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      A great sarcophagus lies beneath the ambo where on one side we find a representation of the True Philosopher seated upon the throne, from which flow the streams of living water, surrounded by the apostles while at his feet ...
    • Another Apostle 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The problems of iconographical perception and practice are obvious. John presumes a portrait is of an idol. Lycomedes is not apologetic but insists that what he has done is proper; he is but showing love and reverence for ...
    • An Apostle 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      However, it is necessary to make the distinction between the icon which represented idolatry and other forms of visual representation which were not seen to be in conflict with Christianity. An instance is illustrated by ...
    • Apostle Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Images also affirmed the veneration of the apostle martyrs of Rome. But relevancy by its very nature means that the church is using a medium of the prevalent culture as a vehicle to communicate its own message and these ...
    • Arch of Galerius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.
    • Ariadne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close up of sarcophagi frontal of Ariadne being covered with gift of eternal sleep.
    • Ark for Torah scrolls 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      But ark, or "tevah" in the Hebrew is a word of ambiguity, meaning an ark for the scrolls of the Torah or that of Noah.
    • Augustus Caesar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Iconography played a further part in that the burning of incense required a symbol or effigy of the emperor. Statue of Caesar known as the Augustus of Prima Porta.
    • Balaam, ass, and angel 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Origen claimed the magi as descendants of Balaam, but Jerome captured the spirit of their role when he wrote: "To confound the Jews a star arose in the East, they [the Jews] were to learn of the birth of Christ from the ...
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Baptism is also portrayed in a more literal representation. Both spoke of baptism into Christ, and therefore into eternal life. Baptism fresco in the Catacomb of Callistus.
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Two other important groups of symbols while without direct iconographic antecedents, emphasized the personalistic emphasis of Christian iconography in the 3rd century: Baptism and the Lord's Supper. Catacomb fresco of ...
    • Baptistry 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Not every Christian symbol has its exact pagan counterpart, though all are within the general language of the visual arts commonly practiced within the Roman empire. The House Church at Dura furnishes a remarkable selection ...
    • Basilica of Sant' Ambrogio 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The basilica of Sant' Ambrogio (built in 385 AD) and before which one finds a statue of Caesar. Basilica of St. Ambrogio, Milano, Italia.
    • Bishop Honorius at the foot of Christ 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Directly below the throne is Christ's representative the bishop. Close-up of Pope Honorius kissing the foot of the enthroned Christ in the apse mosaic of San Paolo fuori le mura.
    • Burning incense to Caesar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christian hostility to idolatry and iconography was sealed in blood when it came into direct conflict with the demands of the state. Wall Panel of citizen burning incense to Caesar.
    • Catacomb fragment of fish and anchor and ☧ (Chi Rho) 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another example of an inscription with the symbols of an anchor, fish, and ☧ (Chi Rho).