• Temple of Faustina 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      This perception was exacerbated when Antonius had a temple erected to his divinized Faustina. The temple of Antonius and Faustina, Foro Romano.
    • Torah ark, lions of Judah, and Menorah 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Other religious reminders include this Jewish glass with the ark and Torah scrolls.
    • Close-up of Christ holding cross as lance 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      On the superb sarcophagus of Sextus Petronius Probus of 395 AD stands Christ surrounded by the apostles his cross held in the very same position as the emperor held his lance as a symbol of authority and in his hand he ...
    • Apostle Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Images also affirmed the veneration of the apostle martyrs of Rome. But relevancy by its very nature means that the church is using a medium of the prevalent culture as a vehicle to communicate its own message and these ...
    • Sarcophagi frontal with philosopher with scroll 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      For many intellectuals in that age of skepticism the only possibility for participation in immortality seemed through meditation and the contemplation of spiritual values. Thus, the figure of the philosopher became a popular ...
    • Fresco of St. John Lateran 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The portion of that Palace which was the basilica was turned into a church. Fresco of the Lateran Basilica as found in a fresco in San Martino Ai Monti.
    • True Philosopher/Pedagogue 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Clement of Alexandria began the intellectual counterattack on pagan intellectualism by claiming for Christ the title of 'true philosopher.' Iconographically the pagan and Christian representation is the same. One can ...
    • Family portraiture 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The wealthy were able to have portraiture done in gold mounted in glass. These images were in the bottom of drinking glasses and such luxury items could be used as such. Portrait of husband, wife, and child, Museo Vaticano.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The simplest answer to the source of early Christian iconography is in the iconographic vocabulary available in the secular Roman world. Christian iconography, drawn from contemporary cultural images was useful to the ...
    • Another Apostle 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The problems of iconographical perception and practice are obvious. John presumes a portrait is of an idol. Lycomedes is not apologetic but insists that what he has done is proper; he is but showing love and reverence for ...
    • Adam and Eve 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of Adam and Eve in the catacomb of Pietro e Marcellino.
    • Sarcophagi frontal with the True Philosopher/Pedagogue 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another symbol used almost as frequently as the Good Shepherd is the True Philosopher/Pedagogue, it too had antecedent pagan usage. Sarcophagi frontal found in Provence. On the right the True Philosopher/Pedagogue with ...
    • Heavenly Jerusalem 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The Christian saw in the resurrection of Lazarus the promise of his own resurrection and oneself as a citizen of the heavenly Jerusalem. The heavenly Jerusalem, four square, fresco from the tomb of the Aurelii.
    • Diana of the Ephesians/Artemis 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Yet there were areas where goddesses of fertility still held sway such as the goddess Artemis, also known as Diana of the Ephesians. It is with her that the devotees of Paul find themselves in conflict as recorded in the ...
    • Noah 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Pagan iconography and roman style weave in and out of one another. In so solidly an Old Testament symbol as that of Noah, we find him saved from the flood in an ark.
    • Co-reigning emperors astride symbols of the cosmos 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Galerius as a co-reigning emperor would by necessity have portrayed himself with his counterpart astride the cosmos as cosmic emperors. Close-up of Triumphal arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki, Via Ignatia.
    • Ariadne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close up of sarcophagi frontal of Ariadne being covered with gift of eternal sleep.
    • Septimius Severus (193-211 AD) 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      It was during the age of the Severi and in particular the reign of Septimius Severus (193-211 AD) that the circumstances were particularly favorable for Christians to develop their own iconography. The religious milieu was ...
    • Catacomb fragment of fish and anchor and ☧ (Chi Rho) 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another example of an inscription with the symbols of an anchor, fish, and ☧ (Chi Rho).
    • Statue of Aphrodite 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Aphrodite, like so many of the Greek gods and goddesses was in the early days of Christianity respected more as a symbol of beauty and femininity than as an object of worship. Statue of Aphrodite, Vatican Museum.