Itens para a visualização no momento 1-20 of 144

    • San Paolo fuori le mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      It was Constantine who began the first church above the grave of the apostle-martyr Paul. Facade of San Paolo rebuilt after the fire in the 19th century to 'replicate' the original.
    • Triumphal Arch 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      The great arches of the Christian basilicas were exactly that--triumphal arches at which the triumph of Christ, the world ruler, was portrayed. Triumphal Arch in San Paolo fuori le mura, Rome.
    • The nave of San Paolo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Constantine's son Constantius II enlarged San Paolo to its present size. Nave and apse of San Paolo fuori le mura.
    • Triumphal Arch and apse of San Paolo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      But something of the transition in iconographic motivation can be seen clearly in this building. For high above the arch, imposed upon the globe of the cosmos, is the pantocrator, ruler of all things, surrounded by cherubim ...
    • High altar and nave 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      The context of this imperial iconography in San Paolo shows forth glory and grandeur as the architecture overwhelms. Long shot facing West through the ciborium over the high altar and grave of Saint Paul.
    • Altar, apse, and Bishop's chair 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Again, the imperial iconography is clear, for even as the Caesar sat in his basilica to deliver the law, and even as every business and governmental transaction to be legal had to take place in a basilica before a ...
    • Grave of St. Peter 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Enshrined is the grave of St. Peter with marbles that can yet be seen in the Clementine Chapel. Marble with vertical porfary stripe behind altar in the Clementine Chapel in the crypt below the high altar in St. Peter's Basilica.
    • Humble gold glass 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Small gold glass in mortar along side of undamaged catacomb loculi.
    • Mithraeum, Dura-Europos 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In Dura-Europos, one also finds a Mithraeum as well as a Jewish synagogue, a temple to the Palmyrene gods, and the sanctuaries of Atargatis, Artemis, Azzanathkona, a Semite Zeus, and other local deities and Adonis. Mithraeum ...
    • Peter and Paul in gold glass 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another religious reminder in this Christian glass with the martyrs Peter and Paul. Their remembrance was not regarded as idolatry, but was accepted within the common iconographic usage of veneration.
    • Gold glass in mortar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Frequently at death, the sides of the glass would be struck off and the bottom with its image fused in the mortar of the grave. Peter and Paul engraved on gold glass in situ (in the mortar), Museo Vaticano.
    • Moses striking the rock 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The motive behind the use of iconography and the promotion of a seemingly aniconic faith was the rise for relevancy in communication as in this representation of baptism. Gold glass of Moses striking the rock as a symbol ...
    • Europos and the bull 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Along with portraiture also went religious reminders such as this pagan representation of Europa and the bull. Gold glass in mortar.
    • Torah ark, lions of Judah, and Menorah 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Other religious reminders include this Jewish glass with the ark and Torah scrolls.
    • Museo Pio Cristiano, Paul VI 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The Museo Pio Cristiano built during the Pontificate of Pope Paul VI. The iconographic collection is primarily housed in the Museo Pio Cristiano with a wide range of works beginning circa the year 200 AD. Also housed here ...
    • Apostle Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Images also affirmed the veneration of the apostle martyrs of Rome. But relevancy by its very nature means that the church is using a medium of the prevalent culture as a vehicle to communicate its own message and these ...
    • Resurrection of Lazarus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Images also affirmed the saving events of the faith such as resurrection. Gold glass depiction of Christ calling forth Lazarus from the tomb.
    • Close-up of Christ holding cross as lance 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      On the superb sarcophagus of Sextus Petronius Probus of 395 AD stands Christ surrounded by the apostles his cross held in the very same position as the emperor held his lance as a symbol of authority and in his hand he ...
    • Christ as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christ now portrayed as a lawgiver as opposed to the Good Shepherd (as seen in ICN0111). Sarcophagi fragment, Christ between apostles Peter and Paul.
    • Passion Sarcophagus, early 4th century 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another instance of imperial imagery being used in this post-Constantinian period is on this passion sarcophagus. Passion Sarcophagus, Museo Pio Cristiano Vaticano.