• The nave of San Paolo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Constantine's son Constantius II enlarged San Paolo to its present size. Nave and apse of San Paolo fuori le mura.
    • San Paolo fuori le mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      It was Constantine who began the first church above the grave of the apostle-martyr Paul. Facade of San Paolo rebuilt after the fire in the 19th century to 'replicate' the original.
    • Altar, apse, and Bishop's chair 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Again, the imperial iconography is clear, for even as the Caesar sat in his basilica to deliver the law, and even as every business and governmental transaction to be legal had to take place in a basilica before a ...
    • Grave of St. Peter 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Enshrined is the grave of St. Peter with marbles that can yet be seen in the Clementine Chapel. Marble with vertical porfary stripe behind altar in the Clementine Chapel in the crypt below the high altar in St. Peter's Basilica.
    • Triumphal Arch 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      The great arches of the Christian basilicas were exactly that--triumphal arches at which the triumph of Christ, the world ruler, was portrayed. Triumphal Arch in San Paolo fuori le mura, Rome.
    • High altar and nave 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      The context of this imperial iconography in San Paolo shows forth glory and grandeur as the architecture overwhelms. Long shot facing West through the ciborium over the high altar and grave of Saint Paul.
    • Triumphal Arch and apse of San Paolo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      But something of the transition in iconographic motivation can be seen clearly in this building. For high above the arch, imposed upon the globe of the cosmos, is the pantocrator, ruler of all things, surrounded by cherubim ...
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Baptism is also portrayed in a more literal representation. Both spoke of baptism into Christ, and therefore into eternal life. Baptism fresco in the Catacomb of Callistus.
    • Statue of Bacchus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another was Bacchus who's followers are still legion. Statue of Bacchus, Vatican Museum.
    • Close-up of Christ enthroned 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the central section of the sarcophagus of Junius Bassius we find Christ enthroned as lawgiver. The law in his hand being given to Peter while Paul stands at his right. Beneath him is a personification of the cosmos ...
    • Cetus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The sea monster was a very familiar figure in Roman iconography known as a cetus. One finds him repeatedly in Roman iconography and Christians used it despite its narrow throat to depict the monster who swallows Jonah. A ...
    • Orpheus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      However, the earliest known representations reflect the roman shepherd in style, pose and attributes, the assimilation, within fifty years, of the closely allied personage of Orpheus would indicate either that a Christian ...
    • Sarcophagi frontal with the Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The bucolic figure had long been a part of Roman art, but for the Christians the Good Shepherd of the 23rd Psalm and Jesus' parables must have struck Christians as finding particularly apt illustration in the familiar ...
    • Sarcophagi with Orant 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Orant with anchor in lower left. Sarcophagus frontal, close-up, Provence.
    • Moses striking the rock 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The motive behind the use of iconography and the promotion of a seemingly aniconic faith was the rise for relevancy in communication as in this representation of baptism. Gold glass of Moses striking the rock as a symbol ...
    • The Good Shepherd, or Apollo or Orpheus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      As for the charge of idolatry this representative of humanitas was not seen as an idol but rather as a symbol. In Christian literature God's love was portrayed in the symbol of the shepherd of the psalms while Christ ...
    • Statue of Aphrodite 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      A replica of Praxitele's Aphrodite (Venus) of Cnidus, Vatican Museum.
    • Mithras hunting 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Mithras hunting. Fresco in the Mithraeum reconstructed in the Yale University Art Gallery.
    • Sarcophagi frontal with another pagan philosopher and disciple 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      A pagan philosopher with disciple on a Sarcophagus frontal.
    • Statue of Christ the Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The great Dutch scholar F. van der Meer claimed that within seventy years after the peace of the church no one was producing any more representations of Christ the good shepherd either in statuary or in fresco form. Statue ...