Recent Submissions

  • High altar and nave 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
    The context of this imperial iconography in San Paolo shows forth glory and grandeur as the architecture overwhelms. Long shot facing West through the ciborium over the high altar and grave of Saint Paul.
  • Pantocrator 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    But is not this pantocrator on the triumphal Arch, this Christ enthroned high on the apse surrounded by apostles and martyrs, above angels and prophets and with the miniscule white-robed Pope bowing at his feet, is not ...
  • Christ in a manger 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    But the perils of the imperial iconography are that it tempts me to do as medieval popes, as crusaders, as all those who have fought holy wars have been tempted to do, as well as those religious who today emulate corporate ...
  • Christ the Good Shepherd 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    In motive and response, is not this Christ (see ICN0144) very different than the Good Shepherd who is willing to carry me on his shoulders? Sculpture of the Good Shepherd, Museo Capitolino.
  • Altar, apse, and Bishop's chair 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
    Again, the imperial iconography is clear, for even as the Caesar sat in his basilica to deliver the law, and even as every business and governmental transaction to be legal had to take place in a basilica before a ...
  • Bishop Honorius at the foot of Christ 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    Directly below the throne is Christ's representative the bishop. Close-up of Pope Honorius kissing the foot of the enthroned Christ in the apse mosaic of San Paolo fuori le mura.
  • Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    The architecture should be closely observed for the arch of San Paolo fuori le mura supports nothing. The roof depends upon wooden trusses above the ceiling, not on the arch, to hold it up. The purpose of the church's ...
  • Christ enthroned 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    Beyond the arch and in the apse is an even more obvious portrayal of the enthroned Christ. Enthroned Christ in the apse mosaic of San Paolo fuori le mura.
  • Triumphal Arch 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
    The great arches of the Christian basilicas were exactly that--triumphal arches at which the triumph of Christ, the world ruler, was portrayed. Triumphal Arch in San Paolo fuori le mura, Rome.
  • The nave of San Paolo 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
    Constantine's son Constantius II enlarged San Paolo to its present size. Nave and apse of San Paolo fuori le mura.
  • Triumphal Arch and apse of San Paolo 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
    But something of the transition in iconographic motivation can be seen clearly in this building. For high above the arch, imposed upon the globe of the cosmos, is the pantocrator, ruler of all things, surrounded by cherubim ...
  • San Paolo fuori le mura 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
    It was Constantine who began the first church above the grave of the apostle-martyr Paul. Facade of San Paolo rebuilt after the fire in the 19th century to 'replicate' the original.
  • Fresco interior of old St. Peter's 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    Again, it was Constantine who began the basilica at St. Peter's. Fresco of old St. Peter's in San Martino ai Monti.
  • Constantine 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    One can hardly blame the Christians of Constantine's time for rejoicing when the persecuting emperors were replaced by one who not only tolerated Christians but believed and showered favors upon the church. Statue of ...
  • Ruins at the Lateran Palace 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    It was Constantine who gave and built the great churches to honor apostles and martyrs, such as the Lateran Palace. Ruins of the Porta Asinaria just outside of the Lateran Palace.
  • Grave of St. Peter 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
    Enshrined is the grave of St. Peter with marbles that can yet be seen in the Clementine Chapel. Marble with vertical porfary stripe behind altar in the Clementine Chapel in the crypt below the high altar in St. Peter's Basilica.
  • Front of ambo 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    On the face of the sarcophagus we have the familiar representation of Christ delivering the law in the presence of the apostles, while again he stands upon the world throne from which flow rivers of living water and before ...
  • Ambo 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    A great sarcophagus lies beneath the ambo where on one side we find a representation of the True Philosopher seated upon the throne, from which flow the streams of living water, surrounded by the apostles while at his feet ...
  • Interior of Sant' Ambrogio 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    Nave of Sant' Ambrogio, Milano, Italia.
  • Close-up of Christ holding cross as lance 

    Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
    On the superb sarcophagus of Sextus Petronius Probus of 395 AD stands Christ surrounded by the apostles his cross held in the very same position as the emperor held his lance as a symbol of authority and in his hand he ...

View more