• 9th century Bishop Grgur Ninski (Gregory of Nin) 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The 9th century statue of Gregory of Nin near the entrance to Diocletian's palace, erected by Ivan Mestrovic. Full view of the statue of Gregory of Nin near the entrance of Diocletian's palace.
    • Agios Georgios 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close-up Apse mosaic of Christ enthroned with apostles and martyrs ca 400.
    • Altar above Martyr's Sarcophagus at St. Lorenzo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The altar elevated above the sarcophagus of the martyr clearly visible from the nave of the church.
    • Altar and nave at Sant' Apollinare 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Side view shot of altar and nave in Sant' Apollinare.
    • Altar and nave of Sant' Apollinare in Classe 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Altar shown in the nave of Sant' Apollinare. Note the typical early altar with stone legs but now with a box for the relics of the martyr directly under the table top.
    • Altar/table 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Progression in the veneration of martyrs now begins to bring the remains of the martyr from a catacomb beneath the high altar into the church itself. Here we see the very early form of the altar/table with four stone legs ...
    • Ancient wall of the old Church of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Ancient wall of the Church of Sant'Agnese built in the 4th century during the reign of Constantine.
    • Apse 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Note the steps leading up to the apse and in the center-left the two visible squares with holes on which once stood two of the columns supporting the baldacchino over the altar.
    • Apse 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Foreground steps leading into the apse, an apse with a synthronon in the rear.
    • Apse mosaic of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Apse mosaic of Sant'Agnese attended by bishop and other figure.
    • Apse of Agios Georgios 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Apse of Agios Georgios with vestiges of the apse mosaic showing Christ.
    • Apse of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Apse of church with door leading into the balcony.
    • Arch and mausoleum of Galerius. 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      On the left is the triumphal arch of Galerius and on the right is the mausoleum of Galerius. Arch and mausoleum of Galerius built c.a. 300 AD.
    • Balcony of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Medium shot of balconies illustrating (at street level) the length to which builders went to bury the floor of the church into the hillside so that the altar could be directly above the grave of the martyr.
    • Baptismal pool 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Like many ancient baptismal pools, this one is in the shape of a Greek cross with three steps down into the waters of baptism and three steps out of it representing being baptized into Christ and his three days in the grave ...
    • Baptistery of Saint Leonidas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Baptisteries, especially in Asia Minor, were frequently structures attached to and alongside of the rear of the nave. The baptistery of St. Leonidas alongside the basilica of St. Leonidas.
    • Base of ambo and solea 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      In the immediate foreground is the base of the former ambo with the solea, or raised runway, moving toward the apse and the wall for the iconostasis.
    • Basilica of San Paolo Fuori le Mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Saint Paul's church outside the walls. Exterior shot with statue of Saint Paul in the foreground.
    • Basilica of Agios Demetrios 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot of the Hagios Demetrios. Fifth century AD. Majestic basilicas were also built in the Eastern Empire as the continuance of Hagios demetrios demonstrates.
    • Basilica of Saint Leonidas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      To illustrate the importance of local martyrs, we go to the remains of the Basilica of St. Leonidas. The distance from the exonarthex to the apse is approximately 600 feet.