• Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Exterior long shot of Sant' Apollinare. This church was constructed in 549 AD.
    • Bema in Ancient Corinth 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      To appreciate the role of even local martyrs we go to Ancient Corinth and the bema before which the apostle Paul was brought for trial. The bema with Acrocorinth in the background.
    • Bishop's throne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Bishop's throne beneath the mosaic of Sant'Agnese.
    • Bronze medallion of co-reigning Caesars 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Caesars were also venerated through 'portraiture' in the medium of bronze medallions. Bronze medallion of co-reigning Caesars. Museo Vaticano.
    • Bronze medallion of martyr-heroes 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      These Christians, presumably martyrs, are identified as such by the ☧ (Chi Rho) at the apex of the medallion. This is another example of Christians using the iconography of the day for the veneration of the martyr-heroes. ...
    • Castel Sant' Angelo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The Heroum/mausoleo di Hadrian lives on today as the Castel Sant' Angelo. Formerly with a conical dome covered with pine trees, both symbols of immortality. Important to the iconography of the martyr-hero was the dome (cf. ...
    • Cathedral pulpit 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      From the concept of the heroa and the funerary monuments with domes, we must now return to the progression of the veneration of the martyrs in the West, first of all, in cemeteries. Shot of pulpit in the Cathedral of Split.
    • Chapel of the Popes 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Veneration of deceased popes. Their cubiculum/chapel in catacomb of Callixtus.
    • Christ giving the Law to Peter with Paul in Santa Constanza 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Mosaic of Christ giving the Law to Peter with Paul in the martyrium of Santa Constanza.
    • Christian sarcophagus with the departed, Jonah, and Eucharistic feast 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      There was initially a thin line between honoring one's departed with a very expensive sarcophagus depicting Christian scenes including that of the Eucharist and honoring the martyr-hero (Christ the initial martyr-hero) ...
    • Christus Pantocrator in dome 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Christ Pantocrator in the dome of the Church of Hagios Demetrios. The tradition continues in this orthodox church built in the middle of a resort complex, maintaining the tradition of the Christ Pantrocator in the dominant ...
    • Church of Saint Cyril and Methodius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot. 20th century Thessaloniki.
    • Church of San Sebastiano 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The church of San Sebastiano (ca 300-350 AD).
    • Church of the Holy Apostles 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot of the Church of the Holy Apostles. Church dating to c.a. 11th century in the Ancient Agora, Athens.
    • Close-up of fragments 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Close-up of wall fragments from the shelter of the refrigeria.
    • Close-up of fragments 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      More close-up of fragments indicating that for at least a time the apostle Peter was interred in one of the three mausolea beneath the Church of San Sebastiano. Close-up of fragments in the mausolea beneath San Sebastiano ...
    • Close-up of the Sol Invictus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      This is sometimes interpreted as the head of Christ. Close-up of ceiling mosaic in St. Peter's Basilica.
    • Colosseum 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      From the floor of the Salona colosseum looking toward seating and arches.
    • Colosseum arch 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Moving out from the center of the colosseum, the arches were part of the upward sloping structure for the seating but also led out of the colosseum. Supporting arch, Salona colosseum.
    • Colosseum at Salona 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The ruins of the little colosseum at Salona, on the other hand, do have archeological evidence of martyrdom.