• Emperor Decius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Decius was the emperor in Rome from 249-251 AD. There was intermittent persecution under Emperor Decius. Bust of Decius.
    • Emperor Nero 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Persecutions of early Christians resulted in martyrdom for many. One of the earliest persecutions was under the Emperor Nero (64 AD). Bust of Nero, the Museum at Corinth.
    • Entrance to the Treasury of Atreus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Entrance to the 'Treasury of Atreus,' Mycenae, Greece, ca 1330 BC. Alternately the tomb of Agamemnon.
    • Eucharist 

      Bruggink, Donald J.
      Close up of feast of the martyr-hero evidenced by fish on the tripod table. Fresco at the catacomb of Pietro e Marcellino
    • Exterior dome over fifth aisle of St. Justus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior dome over fifth aisle. The exterior more clearly reveals the dome over the matyria at the terminus of the fifth aisle at St. Justus.
    • Exterior of Ambulatory of San Sebastiano 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      One might also note the undulating landscape which originally gave its name to the catacombs. Pilgrims said that they were going to "ad catacumbas", or the hollows--meaning the hollows around the church of San Sebastiano. ...
    • Exterior wall of Diocletian's Palace in Split 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The harbor originally came to the walls of the palace for an escape by sea, should that become necessary. Exterior wall of Diocletian's Palace on the side facing the sea.
    • Facade of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Present facade of Sant'Agnese fuori le mura.
    • Family portraiture in gold glass 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The memory of families were honored in portraiture in gold glass. Portraiture of father, mother, and child in gold glass. Museo Vaticano.
    • Feast of the martyr-hero 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      As we move toward an understanding of the transition from martyrdom to the veneration of martyrs we can do so through an understanding of the iconography of the martyr-hero in terms of feast, image, heroa, and dome. Here ...
    • Feast of the martyr-hero/ Eucharist 

      Bruggink, Donald J.
      A catacomb fresco of martyr-hero/Eucharistic feast in Rome.
    • Feast of the martyr-hero/Eucharist 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Close-up of the feast on the sarcophagus found in the Museo delle Terme.
    • Foundations of the Basilica of Saint Leonidas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      View from the chord of the apse looking across the area of the apse, down the nave, to the narthex and exonarthex. A distance of over 600 feet.
    • Fragments from wall of shelter 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Fragments from wall of shelter with petitions to the apostle-martyr Peter.
    • Friar scaling mausoleum 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Friar giving scale to the decoration of the mausoleum.
    • Funerary Jar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      This funerary jar for the ashes of a non-Christian Roman, has a tholoid cap, again symbolizing, a la E. Baldwin Smith, the communication of power through the allusion to divinity, eternity, and the heavens.
    • Hagia Sophia 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Long Exterior shot of Hagia Sophia. Two factors influence the dominant use of the dome in Eastern church architecture. One is the example which has been previously illustrated of the use of the dome with all of its ...
    • Hagia Sophia Apse and Dome 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Hagia Sophia Apse and Dome
    • Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot of Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki, 8th century. The influence of Hagia Sophia coalesced with the theological concern that the veneration of martyrs might supplant the awareness of the centrality of Christ. ...
    • Heroum of Romulus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Heroes, or at least important persons, were also honored in heroa such as that found in the Rome Forum, the Temple of Romulus, the son of the emperor Maxentius. Foro Romano, Heroum of Romulus.