• Castel Sant' Angelo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The Heroum/mausoleo di Hadrian lives on today as the Castel Sant' Angelo. Formerly with a conical dome covered with pine trees, both symbols of immortality. Important to the iconography of the martyr-hero was the dome (cf. ...
    • Cathedral pulpit 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      From the concept of the heroa and the funerary monuments with domes, we must now return to the progression of the veneration of the martyrs in the West, first of all, in cemeteries. Shot of pulpit in the Cathedral of Split.
    • Chapel of the Popes 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Veneration of deceased popes. Their cubiculum/chapel in catacomb of Callixtus.
    • Christ giving the Law to Peter with Paul in Santa Constanza 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Mosaic of Christ giving the Law to Peter with Paul in the martyrium of Santa Constanza.
    • Christian sarcophagus with the departed, Jonah, and Eucharistic feast 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      There was initially a thin line between honoring one's departed with a very expensive sarcophagus depicting Christian scenes including that of the Eucharist and honoring the martyr-hero (Christ the initial martyr-hero) ...
    • Christus Pantocrator in dome 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Christ Pantocrator in the dome of the Church of Hagios Demetrios. The tradition continues in this orthodox church built in the middle of a resort complex, maintaining the tradition of the Christ Pantrocator in the dominant ...
    • Church of Saint Cyril and Methodius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot. 20th century Thessaloniki.
    • Church of San Sebastiano 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The church of San Sebastiano (ca 300-350 AD).
    • Church of the Holy Apostles 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot of the Church of the Holy Apostles. Church dating to c.a. 11th century in the Ancient Agora, Athens.
    • Close-up of fragments 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Close-up of wall fragments from the shelter of the refrigeria.
    • Close-up of fragments 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      More close-up of fragments indicating that for at least a time the apostle Peter was interred in one of the three mausolea beneath the Church of San Sebastiano. Close-up of fragments in the mausolea beneath San Sebastiano ...
    • Close-up of the Sol Invictus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      This is sometimes interpreted as the head of Christ. Close-up of ceiling mosaic in St. Peter's Basilica.
    • Colosseum 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      From the floor of the Salona colosseum looking toward seating and arches.
    • Colosseum arch 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Moving out from the center of the colosseum, the arches were part of the upward sloping structure for the seating but also led out of the colosseum. Supporting arch, Salona colosseum.
    • Colosseum at Salona 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The ruins of the little colosseum at Salona, on the other hand, do have archeological evidence of martyrdom.
    • Columbaria 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The practice of portraiture of the deceased at the site of the grave continues today for the less well to do with small portraits attached to the foot of the "loculi." Columbaria at Campo Verano, Rome.
    • Column capital 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The wealth of St. Leonidas is indicated not only by its immense size but by the elaborate carving on remaining capitals as well as the marble of the columns.
    • "Corinthian Girls" on the Lechaion Road 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The Lechaion road moves from the bema down toward the port of Lechaion on the Gulf of Corinth.
    • Cubiculum of Donna Velatio 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The central figure in the catacomb fresco stands in the orantes position of upraised arms in prayer, sometimes seen as an invitation of the crucifixion. Wall fresco of orante in the cubiculum of Donna Velatio.
    • Cubiculum under St. Peter's, within proximity to the tomb of St. Peter 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The hole in the ceiling of the cubiculum through which a workman fell in the late 1800s, led to the discovery of the coemeterium below the crypt pavement of new St. Peter's. Ceiling mosaic in St. Peter's Basilica.