• Balcony of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Medium shot of balconies illustrating (at street level) the length to which builders went to bury the floor of the church into the hillside so that the altar could be directly above the grave of the martyr.
    • Baptismal pool 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Like many ancient baptismal pools, this one is in the shape of a Greek cross with three steps down into the waters of baptism and three steps out of it representing being baptized into Christ and his three days in the grave ...
    • Baptistery of Saint Leonidas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Baptisteries, especially in Asia Minor, were frequently structures attached to and alongside of the rear of the nave. The baptistery of St. Leonidas alongside the basilica of St. Leonidas.
    • Base of ambo and solea 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      In the immediate foreground is the base of the former ambo with the solea, or raised runway, moving toward the apse and the wall for the iconostasis.
    • Basilica of San Paolo Fuori le Mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Saint Paul's church outside the walls. Exterior shot with statue of Saint Paul in the foreground.
    • Basilica of Agios Demetrios 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot of the Hagios Demetrios. Fifth century AD. Majestic basilicas were also built in the Eastern Empire as the continuance of Hagios demetrios demonstrates.
    • Basilica of Saint Leonidas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      To illustrate the importance of local martyrs, we go to the remains of the Basilica of St. Leonidas. The distance from the exonarthex to the apse is approximately 600 feet.
    • Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Exterior long shot of Sant' Apollinare. This church was constructed in 549 AD.
    • Bema in Ancient Corinth 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      To appreciate the role of even local martyrs we go to Ancient Corinth and the bema before which the apostle Paul was brought for trial. The bema with Acrocorinth in the background.
    • Bishop's throne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Bishop's throne beneath the mosaic of Sant'Agnese.
    • Bronze medallion of co-reigning Caesars 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Caesars were also venerated through 'portraiture' in the medium of bronze medallions. Bronze medallion of co-reigning Caesars. Museo Vaticano.
    • Bronze medallion of martyr-heroes 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      These Christians, presumably martyrs, are identified as such by the ☧ (Chi Rho) at the apex of the medallion. This is another example of Christians using the iconography of the day for the veneration of the martyr-heroes. ...
    • Castel Sant' Angelo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The Heroum/mausoleo di Hadrian lives on today as the Castel Sant' Angelo. Formerly with a conical dome covered with pine trees, both symbols of immortality. Important to the iconography of the martyr-hero was the dome (cf. ...
    • Cathedral pulpit 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      From the concept of the heroa and the funerary monuments with domes, we must now return to the progression of the veneration of the martyrs in the West, first of all, in cemeteries. Shot of pulpit in the Cathedral of Split.
    • Chapel of the Popes 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Veneration of deceased popes. Their cubiculum/chapel in catacomb of Callixtus.
    • Christ giving the Law to Peter with Paul in Santa Constanza 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Mosaic of Christ giving the Law to Peter with Paul in the martyrium of Santa Constanza.
    • Christian sarcophagus with the departed, Jonah, and Eucharistic feast 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      There was initially a thin line between honoring one's departed with a very expensive sarcophagus depicting Christian scenes including that of the Eucharist and honoring the martyr-hero (Christ the initial martyr-hero) ...
    • Christus Pantocrator in dome 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Christ Pantocrator in the dome of the Church of Hagios Demetrios. The tradition continues in this orthodox church built in the middle of a resort complex, maintaining the tradition of the Christ Pantrocator in the dominant ...
    • Church of Saint Cyril and Methodius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot. 20th century Thessaloniki.
    • Church of San Sebastiano 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The church of San Sebastiano (ca 300-350 AD).