• Saint Fosca 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      The ancient Duomo di Torcello (Dome of Torcello) was built approx 1000 AD. Basilica to the left of the campanile.
    • San Sebastiano reclining statue 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Reclining statue of San Sebastiano. The statue is a creation of sculptor Antonio Giorgetti under the direction and designed by Bernini.
    • Sarcophagus for Helena Mother of Constantine 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      This porphyry sarcophagus was probably originally intended for the emperor Constantine (4th century).
    • Sarcophagus of Santa Constanza 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Porphyry sarcophagus of Santa Constanza, daughter of emperor Constantine.
    • Sarcophagus with pipe 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The custom of the feast honoring the dead was occasionally carried to the extreme of running a pipe from the surface down to the buried sarcophagus in order that wine could be poured into the sarcophagus to include the ...
    • Shepherd shape and tholoid hut 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      This catacomb fragment portrays a shepherd leaning on his staff (left) with two sheep, and a stylized tholoid hut on the right.
    • Shepherd's tholoid hut 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The ancient form of the tholoid hut is still in use by shepherds today. Shepherd's tholoid hut in Italian countryside.
    • Side aisle of San Sebastiano interior 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Originally the side aisle of the three-aisled San Sebastiano.
    • Side view of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Side view of Sant'Agnese illustrating how the apse of the church was built into the hillside.
    • St. Justus Basilica 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      St. Justus is a five-aisled basilica. Photo from 5th aisle on the right.
    • St. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      In St. Lorenzo with the joining of two ancient churches we have another demonstration of bringing the martyr into the church, visible for all to see (ca. 579 AD). Church of St. Lorenzo fuori le mura.
    • Statue of Sant 'Elena 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Helena deserved sainthood as the mother of the emperor Constantine whose Christian faith undoubtedly influenced her son. She is also traditionally regarded as finding the remnants of the true cross.
    • Stepped tholos 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The town and surroundings of Alberobello in Southern Italy maintains the ancient practice of creating tholoid structures with unmortared stone. Stepped tholos in Alberobello, Southern Italy.
    • Terminus of fifth aisle in St. Justus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Terminus of fifth aisle.
    • The catacomb of S. Pontiana 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Veneration of three bishops. Fresco of three bishops in the catacomb of S. Pontiana.
    • The church of Hagios Demetrios 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot of Hagio Demetrios. In the "Greek Village" part of a resort on the island of Samos, 21st century.
    • The Colosseum and Arch of Constantine 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Shown here are the crowds for the papal presence at the Colosseum on Good Friday. A commemoration not only of the crucifixion of Christ but also of those who suffered martyrdom: "I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake ...
    • The fastigium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Under the fastigium the emperor revealed himself to his subjects. The fastigium was familiar in its use in temple architecture. Fastigium in Diocletian's Palace shot between two columns.
    • The Pigna from old St. Peter's 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The pine cone in addition to a symbol of fecundity was also, a la E. Baldwin Smith, seen as domical in nature. The Pigna from old St. Peter's.
    • The three mausolea 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Friar standing near the entrance to the three mausolea entrances.