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    • Bearers of the sedia gestatoria 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1969)
      It is obviously an honor to be chosen to be bearers of the pope. The rational for the sedia gestatoria given by the Ladies of Bethanie was that it was not intended to be a matter of implied supremacy but rather the throngs ...
    • Bishop's throne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Bishop's throne beneath the mosaic of Sant'Agnese.
    • Cathedra and high altar of St. Peter's 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1969)
      In 1969 it was still the custom to set the cathedra for the pope in front of the high altar from which he presided for the papal audience.
    • Celebrant's Chair 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan) in partnership with Calvin College (Grand Rapids, Michigan), 1986)
      The importance of Word and Sacrament is further augmented by the celebrant's chair.
    • Celebrants Chair 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan) in partnership with Calvin College (Grand Rapids, Michigan), 1986)
      The celebrant's chair is also of the same material as pulpit and altar/table with the addition of a cushion for creature comfort.
    • The chair of Peter and Bernini's gloria 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1975)
      Reputedly the original bishops chair of the apostle Peter is enclosed in the great bronze cathedra upheld by four doctors of the Church where from the gloria above the Holy Spirit in stained glass comes down in the midst ...
    • The chair of St. Peter beneath the Gloria 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      At the head of the apse, where mass is frequently said, we find the throne of St. Peter in Glory held up by the four doctors of the Church: St. Augustine St. Ambrose, St. Athansius, and John Chrysostom. These four doctors ...
    • Imperial throne at Ottmarsheim 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      As at Aachen, the imperial throne is on the second level, reflecting the Ottonian view of the emperor as above the clergy. However, this Benedictine abbey was consecrated by the reforming pope, Leo IX, cousin of Emperor Henry III.
    • Interior 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan) in partnership with Calvin College (Grand Rapids, Michigan), 1986)
      The interior shows the beginning influence of Rudolph Schwarz insofar as it is essentially circular, composed of elipses. The altar table here has a cut out reflecting a table influence. The bishop's chair is on the left.
    • Liturgical center 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1988)
      Altar, pulpit and bishops chair are all marked by a solid simplicty.
    • Liturgical Center 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan) in partnership with Calvin College (Grand Rapids, Michigan), 1986)
      Note the chair for the bishop/celebrant directly behind the altar/table in its early Christian position.
    • Liturgical Center 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan) in partnership with Calvin College (Grand Rapids, Michigan), 1986)
      The altar/table shows the influence of the liturgical movement, even prior to Vatican II by the indentations in the rectangular block of the altar/table which clearly gives it reference to the table aspect. The axial plan ...
    • Papal throne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Papal throne in the audience chamber.
    • Presbytery and Bishop's Throne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Beyond the Schola Cantorum in the apse is the curved bench of the presbytery surrounding the 6th century bishop's throne.
    • San Paolo fuori l'mura Apse 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Behind the triumphal arch is the apse with its mosaic and the baldanquinn over the martyr/apostle Paul. At the focus of the apse is the bishop's throne directly under the apse mosaic of the enthroned Christ.
    • San Paolo fuori l'mura Bishop's Throne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
    • Sedia gestatoria 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1969)
      Pope Paul VI enters on the "chair for carrying" down the central aisle with throngs of participants (with whom were we) filling the nave.
    • The throne of Glory 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Surmounting this sculptural assemblage by Bernini is the Holy Spirit (in stain glass) hovering over the chair of Peter surrounded by angels. In true baroque fashion angels and the rays of Glory come out of their natural ...