• Adventus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Immediately below the upper central panel of the sarcophagus of Junius Bassius is an Adventus, innocent enough to our eyes but within the context of imperial iconography it represented and emphasized Christ as ruler. ...
    • Ambo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      A great sarcophagus lies beneath the ambo where on one side we find a representation of the True Philosopher seated upon the throne, from which flow the streams of living water, surrounded by the apostles while at his feet ...
    • Ariadne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close up of sarcophagi frontal of Ariadne being covered with gift of eternal sleep.
    • Christ as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christ now portrayed as a lawgiver as opposed to the Good Shepherd (as seen in ICN0111). Sarcophagi fragment, Christ between apostles Peter and Paul.
    • Christ in a manger 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      But the perils of the imperial iconography are that it tempts me to do as medieval popes, as crusaders, as all those who have fought holy wars have been tempted to do, as well as those religious who today emulate corporate ...
    • Christian sarcophagus with the departed, Jonah, and Eucharistic feast 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      There was initially a thin line between honoring one's departed with a very expensive sarcophagus depicting Christian scenes including that of the Eucharist and honoring the martyr-hero (Christ the initial martyr-hero) ...
    • Close-up of Christ enthroned 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the central section of the sarcophagus of Junius Bassius we find Christ enthroned as lawgiver. The law in his hand being given to Peter while Paul stands at his right. Beneath him is a personification of the cosmos ...
    • Close-up of Christ holding cross as lance 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      On the superb sarcophagus of Sextus Petronius Probus of 395 AD stands Christ surrounded by the apostles his cross held in the very same position as the emperor held his lance as a symbol of authority and in his hand he ...
    • Endymion 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Endymion being covered with the gift of eternal sleep by the cherubim. Whenever we see either of them in their eternal repose, they have their right arms cocked behind their heads.
    • Feast of the martyr-hero/Eucharist 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Close-up of the feast on the sarcophagus found in the Museo delle Terme.
    • Front of ambo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      On the face of the sarcophagus we have the familiar representation of Christ delivering the law in the presence of the apostles, while again he stands upon the world throne from which flow rivers of living water and before ...
    • Jonah overboard 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the first scene, Jonah is being thrown from the ship into the mouth of the sea monster. Close up of lower center left, Jonah being thrown to the Cetus.
    • Jonah regurgitated 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The next scene on the Jonah sarcophagus is the Cetus regurgitating Jonah as a symbol of resurrection: "For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale so will the son of man be three days and three ...
    • Jonah sarcophagus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      At this early date the Rome and Provence sarcophagi share still another figure with earlier pagan iconography, that of Jonah. Jonah sarcophagus frontal. Upper left-the raising of Lazarus; left of center- Moses striking the ...
    • Jonah under cucurbitas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      So too, Jonah beneath his gourd always has an arm behind his head. And therein the Biblical story becomes distorted, for the cucurbitas in Scripture is a parable of God's mercy. A petulant Jonah is disturbed with a merciful ...
    • Jonah under cucurbitas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the Biblical account of Jonah, his preaching at Nineveh is followed by his rest under the gourd or cucurbitas. It is at this point that we see something of the potential in pagan iconography to distort the original ...
    • Juliante as Orant 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Again the figure is familiar to pagan iconography, symbolizing the worshiper in Christian iconography the meaning is the same, the posture being that of prayer. Frontal of Juliante Sarcophagus.
    • Nativity Fragment 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      A sarcophagus fragment of the babe Jesus in the manger with star and Mary looking on
    • Pagan sarcophagi with Ariadne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the figure of Jonah reclining under the cucurbitas another conventional figure was used, the mythological figure of Ariadne. Pagan sarcophagi, lower center right depicts Ariadne. Gallery des Candelabra, Museo Pio ...
    • Pagan sarcophagus frontal with Orant 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Pagan sarcophagus frontal with Orant on left, doors to the afterworld in the center.