• Altar, apse, and Bishop's chair 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Again, the imperial iconography is clear, for even as the Caesar sat in his basilica to deliver the law, and even as every business and governmental transaction to be legal had to take place in a basilica before a ...
    • Basilica of San Paolo Fuori le Mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Saint Paul's church outside the walls. Exterior shot with statue of Saint Paul in the foreground.
    • Bishop Honorius at the foot of Christ 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Directly below the throne is Christ's representative the bishop. Close-up of Pope Honorius kissing the foot of the enthroned Christ in the apse mosaic of San Paolo fuori le mura.
    • Christ enthroned 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Beyond the arch and in the apse is an even more obvious portrayal of the enthroned Christ. Enthroned Christ in the apse mosaic of San Paolo fuori le mura.
    • Close up of Pope Honorius at the foot of the enthroned Christ at San Paolo fuori l'mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
    • Enthroned Christ in San Paolo fuori l'mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Apse mosaics at San Paolo fuori l'mura
    • Enthroned Christ with Pope Honorius III at San Paolo Fuori l'mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      San Paolo fuori l'mura
    • High altar and nave 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      The context of this imperial iconography in San Paolo shows forth glory and grandeur as the architecture overwhelms. Long shot facing West through the ciborium over the high altar and grave of Saint Paul.
    • High altar in San Paolo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The high altar in St. Paul's is directly above the sarcophagus of the martyr which is signified by the sloping mensa above the tomb.
    • The nave of San Paolo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Constantine's son Constantius II enlarged San Paolo to its present size. Nave and apse of San Paolo fuori le mura.
    • Pantocrator 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      But is not this pantocrator on the triumphal Arch, this Christ enthroned high on the apse surrounded by apostles and martyrs, above angels and prophets and with the miniscule white-robed Pope bowing at his feet, is not ...
    • San Paolo fuori l'mura Altar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Close up of Altar over the grave of the Apostle Paul surrounded by the four porfiry pillar holding up the baldanquinn
    • San Paolo fuori l'mura Apse 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Behind the triumphal arch is the apse with its mosaic and the baldanquinn over the martyr/apostle Paul. At the focus of the apse is the bishop's throne directly under the apse mosaic of the enthroned Christ.
    • San Paolo fuori l'mura Bishop's Throne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
    • San Paolo fuori l'mura façade 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
    • San Paolo fuori l'mura Nave and Apse 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Nave and longshot of Apse
    • San Paolo fuori le mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      It was Constantine who began the first church above the grave of the apostle-martyr Paul. Facade of San Paolo rebuilt after the fire in the 19th century to 'replicate' the original.
    • San Paolo fuori le mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Looking West from the Apse through the high altar and baldachin.
    • Triumphal Arch 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      The great arches of the Christian basilicas were exactly that--triumphal arches at which the triumph of Christ, the world ruler, was portrayed. Triumphal Arch in San Paolo fuori le mura, Rome.
    • Triumphal Arch and apse of San Paolo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      But something of the transition in iconographic motivation can be seen clearly in this building. For high above the arch, imposed upon the globe of the cosmos, is the pantocrator, ruler of all things, surrounded by cherubim ...