• Ancillary building 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      At a short distance from the chapel are the bunker-like facilities for pilgrims and housing for clerics, alleviated only by the grass roof and colored abstractions.
    • A close up of "gargoyle" and catchment 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
    • The color of the stained glass in the south wall 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      The stained glass of the playfully indented windows are photographed to achieve the proper perception of color.
    • The color of the stained glass in the south wall 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
    • The door from the interior 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Le Corbusier often averred that "an architecture must be walked through and traversed…" Nowhere is this more true than in Ronchamp. One can wander from place to place either outside or inside this incredible building and ...
    • East wall with Virgin and votive candles 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      From this angle along the south wall, the disruptive floor to ceiling windows disappear and the sacral display of votive candles lead the eye upward to the small window with an image of the Virgin.
    • Entrance door 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Flanked by the two smaller towers and mounted on a central pivot, the brilliantly enameled door by Le Corbusier hints at the enchantment of the interior.
    • Exterior liturgical facility 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Since the pilgrimage church will sometimes minister to groups composed of thousands, there is an outdoor pulpit and altar/table for the celebration of the mass. The human scale of pulpit and table is complimented by the ...
    • The interior of Notre Dame du Haut 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      In the foreground, one senses the uneven stone work of a sloping floor. To the side are pews which will seat fifty of the rooms capacity of two hundred. In front are the communion rails, on the slightly raised platform of ...
    • North wall and pulpit 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Different angles produce new aspects of awareness where here we see the cantilevered stairs to the pulpit and the later addition of a rope/railing for the safety of the priest.
    • Notre Dame du Haut, 1953-1955 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Le Corbusier, architect. Built atop a hill and replacing a traditional church destroyed in World War II, Le Corbusier, known for architecture replete with straight lines and right angles, created this pilgrimage church ...
    • Outdoor liturgical center 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Seen from this angle, beyond the altar/table and to the right, one can ascend the steps to the lectern/pulpit. Projecting from the wall is the dominant pulpit for great pilgrimages.
    • The playfully indented south wall 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      The depth of the thickness at the base of the wall is 12.1 from which it tapers to 4.7 feet. Spatially, my wife Erma, standing within the indent gives perhaps a more vivid sense of spatial relationships.
    • Pulpit and access to exterior pulpit 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      To the left of the east wall and interior altar/table, is a small balcony providing access to the outdoor pulpit. On the interior north wall (left) is the pulpit for the chapel interior. Again note the floating ceiling ...
    • Relationship of entry to the magical south wall 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Just inside the door is a tapered cylinder for holy water, the intention of which is to always remind one of one's baptism. To the left are the portals for the deeply recessed windows.
    • Side chapel 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Alongside the entrance at the base of one of the flanking towers is an altar for the side chapel. Its stark simplicity with the light from the clerestories and candle and stuccoed cylindrical walls lend an aura of sanctity ...
    • The south wall seen from the exterior 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      The curvilinear nature of the south wall also indicates how just on the other side of the projecting point, the floor to ceiling windows can illuminate the interior while being invisible from many angles within the church ...
    • Three towers 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1984)
      Each of the three towers surmounts a small interior side chapel, the shape of which follows the half round of the tower. Note also the concrete "gargoyle" projecting from the roof to spout its water into a whimsical catchment.