• The ram's head sarcophagus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Ram's head sarcophagus, left to right showing the True Philosopher, Good Shepherd, and Orantes. (A Christian sarcophagus identified by the central figure of the Good Shepherd and so attested by Andre Grabar) Ram's head ...
    • Sarcophagi frontal with another pagan philosopher and disciple 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      A pagan philosopher with disciple on a Sarcophagus frontal.
    • Sarcophagi frontal with philosopher with scroll 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      For many intellectuals in that age of skepticism the only possibility for participation in immortality seemed through meditation and the contemplation of spiritual values. Thus, the figure of the philosopher became a popular ...
    • Sarcophagi frontal with the True Philosopher/Pedagogue 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another symbol used almost as frequently as the Good Shepherd is the True Philosopher/Pedagogue, it too had antecedent pagan usage. Sarcophagi frontal found in Provence. On the right the True Philosopher/Pedagogue with ...
    • True Philosopher/Pedagogue 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Clement of Alexandria began the intellectual counterattack on pagan intellectualism by claiming for Christ the title of 'true philosopher.' Iconographically the pagan and Christian representation is the same. One can ...