• Bronze medallion of martyr-heroes 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      These Christians, presumably martyrs, are identified as such by the ☧ (Chi Rho) at the apex of the medallion. This is another example of Christians using the iconography of the day for the veneration of the martyr-heroes. ...
    • Celebrating Peter the fisher of men 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Part of the celebration of the feast of St. Peter's was the fishermen's trap done in a green garland hung above the main entrance to St Peter's basilica.
    • The chair of St. Peter beneath the Gloria 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      At the head of the apse, where mass is frequently said, we find the throne of St. Peter in Glory held up by the four doctors of the Church: St. Augustine St. Ambrose, St. Athansius, and John Chrysostom. These four doctors ...
    • Christ as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christ now portrayed as a lawgiver as opposed to the Good Shepherd (as seen in ICN0111). Sarcophagi fragment, Christ between apostles Peter and Paul.
    • Christ as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Even within the confines of rude catacomb art we have Christ portrayed as lawgiver. Fresco of Christ as lawgiver, Catacomb of Commodilla.
    • Christ enthroned as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      That vision of rule is enlarged so that Christ is seated on a throne surrounded by the apostles Peter and Paul. Fresco in the catacomb of Pietro e Marcellino, Christ as lawgiver enthroned.
    • Christ giving the keys to Peter 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Under the balcony and above the entrance to the narthex is the bas relief of Christ giving the keys to St. Peter by Ambrogio Buonvicino.
    • Close up of Apse of St. John 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      On a field of blue, the Holy Spirit and angels surround the Christus Pantocrator. On the field of gold, a bejeweled cross with a medallion head of Christ stands on a hill from which flow streams of living water at which ...
    • Close up of the central panels with Saints Paul and Peter 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Note the dominuative, kneeling pope receiving the keys.
    • A close up of the summit of the obelisk and St. Peter's. 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      A close up of the summit of the obelisk reveals the insignia of the Bernini papacy, under which the obelisk was raised, with the cross surmounting all. Note the cross over the orb of the world, which also surmounts the ...
    • Close-up of Christ enthroned 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the central section of the sarcophagus of Junius Bassius we find Christ enthroned as lawgiver. The law in his hand being given to Peter while Paul stands at his right. Beneath him is a personification of the cosmos ...
    • Close-up of Christ holding cross as lance 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      On the superb sarcophagus of Sextus Petronius Probus of 395 AD stands Christ surrounded by the apostles his cross held in the very same position as the emperor held his lance as a symbol of authority and in his hand he ...
    • Close-up of fragments 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      More close-up of fragments indicating that for at least a time the apostle Peter was interred in one of the three mausolea beneath the Church of San Sebastiano. Close-up of fragments in the mausolea beneath San Sebastiano ...
    • The crucifixion of Peter 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      A close up of the crucifixion of Peter with the emperor Nero enthroned on the upper left with the castle St. Angelo on the lower center left.
    • Crucifixion of St. Peter 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Also in the Pauline chapel is Michelangelo's crucifixion of St. Peter. (Both Pauline chapel images from books)
    • Cubiculum mosaic 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The imprint of another mosaic in the same cubiculum. It was the discovery of this ancient cemetery which led in the 1940's to the scholarly excavations, revealing what Pius XII declared to be the tomb of St. Peter on ...
    • A fountain in the Vatican Gardens 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      The hill into which St. Peter's was built to house the grave of the aposle becomes apparent as one ascends the garden's paths.
    • Gold Glass 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1977)
      Gold glass with Peter and Paul being given their martyr's crown.
    • Gold glass in mortar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Frequently at death, the sides of the glass would be struck off and the bottom with its image fused in the mortar of the grave. Peter and Paul engraved on gold glass in situ (in the mortar), Museo Vaticano.
    • Gold glass of Peter and Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1975)
      Christians also venerated the apostolic martyrs in gold glass.