• An apologetic function and an exemplary function in 1 Thessalonians 2:1-12 

      Joen, Jong Man (2014)

      The autobiographical statements in 1 Thessalonians 2:1-12 has two debates about Paul’s intention and purpose: Did Paul defend himself from some kind of accusations or present himself as a model to be imitated?

      The ...

    • Apostle Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Images also affirmed the veneration of the apostle martyrs of Rome. But relevancy by its very nature means that the church is using a medium of the prevalent culture as a vehicle to communicate its own message and these ...
    • Baptism of Lydia 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (1984)
      Terry DeYoung and Dawn Boelkins standing at the stream where Lydia might have been baptized.
    • Beheading of Paul and John 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Frescoes
    • Bronze medallion of martyr-heroes 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      These Christians, presumably martyrs, are identified as such by the ☧ (Chi Rho) at the apex of the medallion. This is another example of Christians using the iconography of the day for the veneration of the martyr-heroes. ...
    • Christ as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christ now portrayed as a lawgiver as opposed to the Good Shepherd (as seen in ICN0111). Sarcophagi fragment, Christ between apostles Peter and Paul.
    • Christ as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Even within the confines of rude catacomb art we have Christ portrayed as lawgiver. Fresco of Christ as lawgiver, Catacomb of Commodilla.
    • Christ blessing St. Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of Christ blessing St. Paul. Note supporting pillar to right.
    • Christ enthroned as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      That vision of rule is enlarged so that Christ is seated on a throne surrounded by the apostles Peter and Paul. Fresco in the catacomb of Pietro e Marcellino, Christ as lawgiver enthroned.
    • Close up of Apse of St. John 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      On a field of blue, the Holy Spirit and angels surround the Christus Pantocrator. On the field of gold, a bejeweled cross with a medallion head of Christ stands on a hill from which flow streams of living water at which ...
    • Close-up of Christ blessing St. Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close-up of Christ blessing St. Paul.
    • Close-up of Christ enthroned 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the central section of the sarcophagus of Junius Bassius we find Christ enthroned as lawgiver. The law in his hand being given to Peter while Paul stands at his right. Beneath him is a personification of the cosmos ...
    • Gold Glass 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1977)
      Gold glass with Peter and Paul being given their martyr's crown.
    • Gold glass in mortar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Frequently at death, the sides of the glass would be struck off and the bottom with its image fused in the mortar of the grave. Peter and Paul engraved on gold glass in situ (in the mortar), Museo Vaticano.
    • Gold glass representation of the martyrs Peter and Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Early Christian iconography found representation in gold glass. The image was inscribed in gold on glass and was fused between two layers of glass. The sides enabled use as a goblet. (here shown with only the bottom of ...
    • "I have become all things to all people" : relinquishment as a missionary lifestyle 

      Macias B, Jose Antonio (2012)

      In Paul’s missionary trips to Corinth, his ability to connect with the multi-cultural community in Corinth, and his letters to the Corinthian church, we can find a basis for understanding the meaning of crossing cultures ...

    • Inscription in Mamertine Prison 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1977)
      This inscription cites the presence of the apostles Peter and Paul, together with the conversion of their jailer at which according to tradition a spring appeared in the floor of the prison allowing the jailer to be baptized.
    • Medallion of Peter and Paul 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Similarly, the Christians venerated their leaders in the faith, particularly apostles and martyrs, and struck similar bronze medals, not for the purposes of idolatry, but as Lycomedes protested in the Apocryphal Acts of ...
    • Overview of the Forum at Philippi 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (1984)
      Students looking at the landscape where once stood the Forum of Philippi
    • Paul and John welcomed into Eternal Life 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Frescoes