• Diana of the Ephesians/Artemis 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Yet there were areas where goddesses of fertility still held sway such as the goddess Artemis, also known as Diana of the Ephesians. It is with her that the devotees of Paul find themselves in conflict as recorded in the ...
    • Mithras 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christianity had not lost the vociferously aniconic nature it had inherited from Judaism. In the canonical literature of the 1st century the witness is consistently to an aniconic faith. In the non-canonical literature of ...
    • Museo Pio Cristiano, Paul VI 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The iconographic collection is primarily housed in the Museo Pio Cristiano with a wide range of works beginning circa the year 200 AD. The curator and staff of the Vatican museum are thanked for allowing me to photograph ...
    • Museo Pio Cristiano, Paul VI 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The Museo Pio Cristiano built during the Pontificate of Pope Paul VI. The iconographic collection is primarily housed in the Museo Pio Cristiano with a wide range of works beginning circa the year 200 AD. Also housed here ...
    • Pagan sarcophagus frontal with Orant 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Pagan sarcophagus frontal with Orant on left, doors to the afterworld in the center.
    • Sarcophagi frontal with philosopher with scroll 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      For many intellectuals in that age of skepticism the only possibility for participation in immortality seemed through meditation and the contemplation of spiritual values. Thus, the figure of the philosopher became a popular ...
    • Serapis 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Nor were the pagans incorrect. Popular opinion was reinforced by the writings of the early Christian apologists. Justin martyr (ca 100-165?) in Rome railed against the idolaters and was proud of their absence among Christians. ...
    • Statue of Caesar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      However, because of the gradual process of the divinization of Roman emperors, Christians refused this act which they regarded as idolatry. A statue of Caesar, Vatican Museo Profano.
    • Statue of Omphale 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Omphale, who once practiced her wiles on Hercules, now lends them to advertisements of every sort. Statue of Omphale, Gregoriano Profano Museo.