• Christ as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christ now portrayed as a lawgiver as opposed to the Good Shepherd (as seen in ICN0111). Sarcophagi fragment, Christ between apostles Peter and Paul.
    • Christ in a manger 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      But the perils of the imperial iconography are that it tempts me to do as medieval popes, as crusaders, as all those who have fought holy wars have been tempted to do, as well as those religious who today emulate corporate ...
    • Family urn 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Family funerary urn. The eight holes were for the ashes of family members.
    • Funerary urn 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Funerary urn. The pine cone on top symbolized eternal life.
    • Funerary urns 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Square funerary urns.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      A statue the Good Shepherd, Vaticano Museo Pio Cristiano.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The bucolic figure for Romans represented philanthropy or humanitas. Sculpture of the Good Shepherd, Museo Pio Vaticano.
    • Jonah overboard 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the first scene, Jonah is being thrown from the ship into the mouth of the sea monster. Close up of lower center left, Jonah being thrown to the Cetus.
    • Jonah regurgitated 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The next scene on the Jonah sarcophagus is the Cetus regurgitating Jonah as a symbol of resurrection: "For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale so will the son of man be three days and three ...
    • Jonah sarcophagus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      At this early date the Rome and Provence sarcophagi share still another figure with earlier pagan iconography, that of Jonah. Jonah sarcophagus frontal. Upper left-the raising of Lazarus; left of center- Moses striking the ...
    • Jonah under cucurbitas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      So too, Jonah beneath his gourd always has an arm behind his head. And therein the Biblical story becomes distorted, for the cucurbitas in Scripture is a parable of God's mercy. A petulant Jonah is disturbed with a merciful ...
    • Jonah under cucurbitas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the Biblical account of Jonah, his preaching at Nineveh is followed by his rest under the gourd or cucurbitas. It is at this point that we see something of the potential in pagan iconography to distort the original ...
    • Juliante as Orant 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Again the figure is familiar to pagan iconography, symbolizing the worshiper in Christian iconography the meaning is the same, the posture being that of prayer. Frontal of Juliante Sarcophagus.
    • Museo Pio Cristiano, Paul VI 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The iconographic collection is primarily housed in the Museo Pio Cristiano with a wide range of works beginning circa the year 200 AD. The curator and staff of the Vatican museum are thanked for allowing me to photograph ...
    • Museo Pio Cristiano, Paul VI 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The Museo Pio Cristiano built during the Pontificate of Pope Paul VI. The iconographic collection is primarily housed in the Museo Pio Cristiano with a wide range of works beginning circa the year 200 AD. Also housed here ...
    • Nativity Fragment 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      A sarcophagus fragment of the babe Jesus in the manger with star and Mary looking on
    • Passion Sarcophagus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Left to right: Jesus remonstrates soldiers, soldiers bind Jesus, crucifixion with illusion to confession (under cross, left, and to the attunement with sleeping soldier to the right), second panel from right: soldier ...
    • Passion Sarcophagus, early 4th century 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another instance of imperial imagery being used in this post-Constantinian period is on this passion sarcophagus. Passion Sarcophagus, Museo Pio Cristiano Vaticano.
    • The ram's head sarcophagus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Ram's head sarcophagus, left to right showing the True Philosopher, Good Shepherd, and Orantes. (A Christian sarcophagus identified by the central figure of the Good Shepherd and so attested by Andre Grabar) Ram's head ...
    • Sarcophagi close-up of a fisherman 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      "If a fisherman be depicted thereon this will remind us of the apostle and of the children fished from the water. Yet beware of depicting idols for it is unlawful even to gaze upon them" (Clement's Paedagogus). Clement, ...