• 2nd and 3rd Century Roman Apartments 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Frescoes on the 2nd and 3rd century Roman apartments.
    • Abraham & Isaac 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Sacrifice of Isaac. Abraham (center) with Isaac (right) carrying the wood for the sacrifice, Catacomb of Priscilla, 3rd century, Rome.
    • Adam & Eve 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of the Old Testament scene of Adam and Eve with the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and the serpent.
    • Adam & Eve 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Adam & Eve aware of their sin.
    • Adam and Eve 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of Adam and Eve in the catacomb of Pietro e Marcellino.
    • Annunciation 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      South aisle, fourth chapel, the annunciation is by Antoniazzo Romano - 1500
    • Another Apostle 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The problems of iconographical perception and practice are obvious. John presumes a portrait is of an idol. Lycomedes is not apologetic but insists that what he has done is proper; he is but showing love and reverence for ...
    • Apollo or Good Shepherd? 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Apollo with animals, Coemeterium Majus, Rome. The image of Apollo with the sheep formed a ready iconographic model for the Biblical references to the shepherd in Old and New Testament.
    • An Apostle 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      However, it is necessary to make the distinction between the icon which represented idolatry and other forms of visual representation which were not seen to be in conflict with Christianity. An instance is illustrated by ...
    • Apse of Sant' Andrea della Valle 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      With better lighting the apse with it's fresco of St. Andrew being martyred on his x shaped cross becomes apparent.
    • Arcosolium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Arcosolium damaged by grave robbers, Catacomb of Domatilla, Rome. Note the damages which mark the places both for inhumation and possibly for ashes.
    • Arcosolium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of refrigerium/Eucharist and Good Shepherd medallion on ceiling, Catacomb of Pietro & Marcellino, Rome.
    • Arcosolium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Relatively undamaged arcosolium and sarcophagus with pagan themes, Via Latina Catacomb, Rome. The term arcosolium refers to the arched niche usually in the cubiculum (i.e. square room) in a catacomb.
    • Arcosolium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Damaged fresco of ark for the torah scrolls in the Arcosolium, Jewish catacomb on the Via Noumentana.
    • Ark for Torah scrolls 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      But ark, or "tevah" in the Hebrew is a word of ambiguity, meaning an ark for the scrolls of the Torah or that of Noah.
    • Balaam's ass 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of Balaam's ass who sees angels blocking path
    • Balaam, ass, and angel 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Origen claimed the magi as descendants of Balaam, but Jerome captured the spirit of their role when he wrote: "To confound the Jews a star arose in the East, they [the Jews] were to learn of the birth of Christ from the ...
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Baptism is also portrayed in a more literal representation. Both spoke of baptism into Christ, and therefore into eternal life. Baptism fresco in the Catacomb of Callistus.
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Two other important groups of symbols while without direct iconographic antecedents, emphasized the personalistic emphasis of Christian iconography in the 3rd century: Baptism and the Lord's Supper. Catacomb fresco of ...
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of a baptism. Baptism as union with Christ was therefore also a symbol of salvation and therefore appropriate to the burial chamber.