• Apollo or Good Shepherd? 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Apollo with animals, Coemeterium Majus, Rome. The image of Apollo with the sheep formed a ready iconographic model for the Biblical references to the shepherd in Old and New Testament.
    • Christ the Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      It was simply no longer popular for a Christ who is greater than Caesar to be portrayed as a humble shepherd. The motivation has now changed, for it is now an imperial faith which stands above, or at least in league with, ...
    • Christ the Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In motive and response, is not this Christ (see ICN0144) very different than the Good Shepherd who is willing to carry me on his shoulders? Sculpture of the Good Shepherd, Museo Capitolino.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of the Good Shepherd on the dome of a cubiculum. Images of the Good Shepherd varied. Most images of the Good Shepherd were painted in the domes of cubiculi, the place of prominence, considering the role of the dome ...
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The simplest answer to the source of early Christian iconography is in the iconographic vocabulary available in the secular Roman world. Christian iconography, drawn from contemporary cultural images was useful to the ...
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The "Good Shepherd" is displayed here as orantes with another orantes on the left. This image is on the wall around the broken loculi, Catacomb of Calixtus, Rome. "I desire that in every place the men shall pray, lifting ...
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Unknown author (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      It is among the earliest symbols of the catacombs of Rome as well as Dura Europos. Baptistry fresco of the Good Shepherd in Dura Europos (detail of ICN0036).
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Sculpture of the Good Shepherd, Museo Capitolino.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of the Good Shepherd, catacomb of Priscilla.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      This image is on a squinch of the cubiculum, Catacomb of Calixtus, Rome.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The fresco of the Good Shepherd with symbols of Apollo--the greenery and additional animals and birds, Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome. The Good Shepherd was the most popular of all fresco subjects of the Early Church.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      A statue the Good Shepherd, Vaticano Museo Pio Cristiano.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Fresco in the catacomb of Priscilla
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The bucolic figure for Romans represented philanthropy or humanitas. Sculpture of the Good Shepherd, Museo Pio Vaticano.
    • The Good Shepherd, or Apollo or Orpheus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      As for the charge of idolatry this representative of humanitas was not seen as an idol but rather as a symbol. In Christian literature God's love was portrayed in the symbol of the shepherd of the psalms while Christ ...
    • The ram's head sarcophagus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Ram's head sarcophagus, left to right showing the True Philosopher, Good Shepherd, and Orantes. (A Christian sarcophagus identified by the central figure of the Good Shepherd and so attested by Andre Grabar) Ram's head ...
    • Sarcophagi frontal with the Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The bucolic figure had long been a part of Roman art, but for the Christians the Good Shepherd of the 23rd Psalm and Jesus' parables must have struck Christians as finding particularly apt illustration in the familiar ...
    • Sarcophagi frontal with the Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      And again in Provence, the Good Shepherd used as an early symbol. Sarcophagi frontal, Provence circa 200 AD. Good Shepherd on the left, Philosopher/Job on the right.
    • Sculpture of Christ the Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      At the same time more personal forms of iconography also began to change. For Christ, by virtue of his recognition by Caesar, was now on necessity portrayed as greater than Caesar. It was now far more appropriate to ...
    • Statue of Christ the Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The great Dutch scholar F. van der Meer claimed that within seventy years after the peace of the church no one was producing any more representations of Christ the good shepherd either in statuary or in fresco form. Statue ...