• The Castel Sant'Angelo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Originally the castle, which was intended as a mausoleum, was covered with a conical surmounted by earth works shaped as a cone and covered with pine trees, all to reinforce the symbol of the immortality of the emperor, ...
    • The Cathedral of Mainz 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      Begun by Bishop Bardo in 1036 it was reconstructed by Henry IV in 1081. The present west end was completed between 1200 and 1250. Initially the cathedral continued the two choir format.
    • The Cathedral of Speyer 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      "Seeing Christ through the eyes of emperor and pope." Begun in 1031 by Conrad II. The eleventh century Rhine cathedrals are marked by a double liturgical focus for the sacerdotium and imperium. The west end was for the ...
    • The Cathedral of Worms 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      Both the emperor on the left and the papacy on the right were represented by the twin towers offering entry into the city of God, the church.
    • The Cathedral of Worms, west end façade 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      Worms also architecturally represents the tension between emperor and papacy as to the control of the church. Here accordingly the church has a double choir for emperor in the west and papacy bishop in the east.
    • Close up Co-Reigning emperors 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1988)
      Close-up of the co-reigning emperors astride symbols of the cosmos. Iconography later adapted to show Christ astride the cosmos.
    • Close-up of Suppliants 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1988)
      The suppliants are bearing gifts to the emperor. Iconography adopted by the church showing magi bringing gifts to the infant Christ.
    • Early representation of Rome 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      In the representation the Mausoleum of Hardian is found to the middle left of the photo, while a similar mausoleum, that of the Emperor Augustus is found in the upper left. The mausoleum was first transformed into Castel ...
    • The Emperor Hadrian 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The Castel Sant'Angelo was begun by the Emperor Hardian circa 128 AD
    • Emperor supplanted by organ 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      The west end of the nave complete with altar for celebrating the mass, architecturally spoke to the conflict between papacy and emperor as to who was Christ's ultimate representative. The emperor customarily sat in enthroned ...
    • Koln (Cologne) Cathedral 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      Begun in 1248 and completed only in 1868. It represents the architectural high gothic and the abandonment of the double choirs and the struggle for power between papacy and emperor.
    • Solider burning incense 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1988)
      Close up of solider burning incense before the emperor.
    • Upper and Lower Midrange Arch 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1988)
      Upper range showing defeated suppliants bearing gifts to the conquering emperor. Lower mid range showing the burning of incense for the emperor.
    • The west choir for the emperor 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1973)
      Here the initial double choirs of the church are somewhat more manifest, the claims of the emporium represented in a simple altar/table. The emperor's elevated position on a highly raised dais is no longer extent.