• Abraham & Isaac 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Sacrifice of Isaac. Abraham (center) with Isaac (right) carrying the wood for the sacrifice, Catacomb of Priscilla, 3rd century, Rome.
    • Adam & Eve 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of the Old Testament scene of Adam and Eve with the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and the serpent.
    • Adam & Eve 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Adam & Eve aware of their sin.
    • Adam and Eve 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of Adam and Eve in the catacomb of Pietro e Marcellino.
    • Apollo or Good Shepherd? 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Apollo with animals, Coemeterium Majus, Rome. The image of Apollo with the sheep formed a ready iconographic model for the Biblical references to the shepherd in Old and New Testament.
    • Arcosolium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of refrigerium/Eucharist and Good Shepherd medallion on ceiling, Catacomb of Pietro & Marcellino, Rome.
    • Arcosolium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Arcosolium damaged by grave robbers, Catacomb of Domatilla, Rome. Note the damages which mark the places both for inhumation and possibly for ashes.
    • Arcosolium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Relatively undamaged arcosolium and sarcophagus with pagan themes, Via Latina Catacomb, Rome. The term arcosolium refers to the arched niche usually in the cubiculum (i.e. square room) in a catacomb.
    • Arcosolium 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Damaged fresco of ark for the torah scrolls in the Arcosolium, Jewish catacomb on the Via Noumentana.
    • Ark for Torah scrolls 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      But ark, or "tevah" in the Hebrew is a word of ambiguity, meaning an ark for the scrolls of the Torah or that of Noah.
    • Balaam's ass 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of Balaam's ass who sees angels blocking path
    • Balaam, ass, and angel 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Origen claimed the magi as descendants of Balaam, but Jerome captured the spirit of their role when he wrote: "To confound the Jews a star arose in the East, they [the Jews] were to learn of the birth of Christ from the ...
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Baptism is also portrayed in a more literal representation. Both spoke of baptism into Christ, and therefore into eternal life. Baptism fresco in the Catacomb of Callistus.
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Two other important groups of symbols while without direct iconographic antecedents, emphasized the personalistic emphasis of Christian iconography in the 3rd century: Baptism and the Lord's Supper. Catacomb fresco of ...
    • Baptism 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of a baptism. Baptism as union with Christ was therefore also a symbol of salvation and therefore appropriate to the burial chamber.
    • Baptistry 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Baptistry with fresco of the Baptism of Christ; note loculi above fresco. (Also see CAT0040)
    • Baptistry with Baptism of Christ 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Frescoe of baptism of Christ, note steps leading down into the water of baptism.
    • Bearded Christ with Alpha & Omega 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of Bearded Christ with halo and inscription alpha and omega.
    • Catacomb fragment of fish and anchor and ☧ (Chi Rho) 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Another example of an inscription with the symbols of an anchor, fish, and ☧ (Chi Rho).
    • Catacomb fresco of refrigeria/Eucharist 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In both the synagogue and the church the pictures are there to communicate the message of their faith, they are a visual reinforcement of its written iconography. The origins of this iconography, however, is not to be found ...