• Abraham & Isaac 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Sacrifice of Isaac. Abraham (center) with Isaac (right) carrying the wood for the sacrifice, Catacomb of Priscilla, 3rd century, Rome.
    • Catacomb fresco of refrigeria/Eucharist 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In both the synagogue and the church the pictures are there to communicate the message of their faith, they are a visual reinforcement of its written iconography. The origins of this iconography, however, is not to be found ...
    • The coopers 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of the barrel makers, Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome. Fresco of Coopers marking the cubiculum as a burrying place for the guild of Coopers.
    • Cubiculum of Donna Velatio 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The central figure in the catacomb fresco stands in the orantes position of upraised arms in prayer, sometimes seen as an invitation of the crucifixion. Wall fresco of orante in the cubiculum of Donna Velatio.
    • Donna Velata 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      An allusion to this posture is found in Paul's first letter to Timothy, verse 8, "I desire then that in every place the men should pray lifting holy hands…" Donna Velata close up, Catacomb of Priscilla.
    • Donna Velata 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Woman as the Orantes, Catacomb of Priscilla. In this case a woman is depicted as the orantes (see CAT0029).
    • Donna Velata 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close up of Donna Velata.
    • Donna Velata as Orant 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Again, in Christian iconography the meaning is the same, the posture being that of prayer. Catacomb fresco of Donna Velata in position of Orant. Mary and Jesus on right?
    • Entrance to the Catacomb of Priscilla 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1977)
      Entrance to the catacomb of Priscilla.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Fresco of the Good Shepherd, catacomb of Priscilla.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The fresco of the Good Shepherd with symbols of Apollo--the greenery and additional animals and birds, Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome. The Good Shepherd was the most popular of all fresco subjects of the Early Church.
    • The Good Shepherd 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Fresco in the catacomb of Priscilla
    • Loculi 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Loculi on either side of a corridor in the Catacomb of Priscilla. As more loculi were needed, the passageway was often lowered.
    • Loculus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close up of Loculus with bones. Grave robbers opened most graves, in catacombs not opened to the public some remains are left.
    • Magi approaching Mary and Jesus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the earliest representation of Mary and Jesus is the presence of the gentile magi done in the familiar iconography of suppliants. Andre Grabar sees the Magi as the oldest image/sign for the central Christian fact of ...
    • Marble faced loculus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Loculus with its original marble facing. One of the few not smashed by grave robbers.
    • Mary & Jesus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close up on mother and child in the arcosolium of Donna Velata, Catacomb of Priscilla. Some scholars argue for a generic mother and child, others argue for Mary & Jesus.
    • Mary, Christ, and Balaam 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Building on Numbers 24:17, "A star shall rise out of Jacob , and a scepter shall spring up from Israel" the fathers set forth Balaam, a non-Jew, as a prophet belonging to the race and profession of the Magi. Balaam pointing ...
    • Mary, Jesus & Balaam 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Balaam is pointing to the star above Mary's head, Catacomb of Priscilla. A reference to Numbers 24:17.
    • Moses striking the rock 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Baptism is also portrayed through the Old Testament figure of Moses striking the rock, which the apostle Paul in 1 Cor. 10:4 had described as Christ. Moses striking the rock, catacomb of Priscilla.