• Agios Georgios 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close-up Apse mosaic of Christ enthroned with apostles and martyrs ca 400.
    • Altar above Martyr's Sarcophagus at St. Lorenzo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      The altar elevated above the sarcophagus of the martyr clearly visible from the nave of the church.
    • Altar, apse, and Bishop's chair 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1968)
      Again, the imperial iconography is clear, for even as the Caesar sat in his basilica to deliver the law, and even as every business and governmental transaction to be legal had to take place in a basilica before a ...
    • Ambo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      A great sarcophagus lies beneath the ambo where on one side we find a representation of the True Philosopher seated upon the throne, from which flow the streams of living water, surrounded by the apostles while at his feet ...
    • Ancient wall of the old Church of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Ancient wall of the Church of Sant'Agnese built in the 4th century during the reign of Constantine.
    • Apse 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Note the steps leading up to the apse and in the center-left the two visible squares with holes on which once stood two of the columns supporting the baldacchino over the altar.
    • Apse 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Foreground steps leading into the apse, an apse with a synthronon in the rear.
    • Apse mosaic of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Apse mosaic of Sant'Agnese attended by bishop and other figure.
    • Apse of Agios Georgios 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Apse of Agios Georgios with vestiges of the apse mosaic showing Christ.
    • Apse of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Apse of church with door leading into the balcony.
    • Balcony of Sant'Agnese 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Medium shot of balconies illustrating (at street level) the length to which builders went to bury the floor of the church into the hillside so that the altar could be directly above the grave of the martyr.
    • Baptismal pool 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Like many ancient baptismal pools, this one is in the shape of a Greek cross with three steps down into the waters of baptism and three steps out of it representing being baptized into Christ and his three days in the grave ...
    • Baptistery of Saint Leonidas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Baptisteries, especially in Asia Minor, were frequently structures attached to and alongside of the rear of the nave. The baptistery of St. Leonidas alongside the basilica of St. Leonidas.
    • Base of ambo and solea 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      In the immediate foreground is the base of the former ambo with the solea, or raised runway, moving toward the apse and the wall for the iconostasis.
    • Basilica of San Paolo Fuori le Mura 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Saint Paul's church outside the walls. Exterior shot with statue of Saint Paul in the foreground.
    • Basilica of Agios Demetrios 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Exterior shot of the Hagios Demetrios. Fifth century AD. Majestic basilicas were also built in the Eastern Empire as the continuance of Hagios demetrios demonstrates.
    • The Basilica of Maxentius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      One of the largest basilicas of its day, it was begun by Maxentius (306-10) due to his downfall at the Milvian bridge, was complete by Constantine. It is a hundred meters long and 65 meters wide, composing a nave with two ...
    • Basilica of Maxentius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Basilica of Maxentius who reigned from 306-312. We are looking at one of the side aisles with three bays. Note the springers which held the roof over the central nave. Finally, on the floor, note the column bases for the ...
    • The Basilica of Maxentius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Originally the arches covering the nave were 35 meters high. The arches over the side aisle is 24 meters high.
    • Basilica of Maxentius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1977)