• Adventus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Immediately below the upper central panel of the sarcophagus of Junius Bassius is an Adventus, innocent enough to our eyes but within the context of imperial iconography it represented and emphasized Christ as ruler. ...
    • Arch of Galerius 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.
    • Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki 

      Bruggink, Donald J.
      Arch of Galerius. The arch contained standard iconography for suppliants bringing gifts. Another instance of existing iconography which was also used by Christians.
    • Ariadne 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Close up of sarcophagi frontal of Ariadne being covered with gift of eternal sleep.
    • Burning incense to Caesar 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christian hostility to idolatry and iconography was sealed in blood when it came into direct conflict with the demands of the state. Wall Panel of citizen burning incense to Caesar.
    • ☧ (Chi Rho) 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Constantine had conquered under the sign of ☧ (Chi Rho). Now he began to bestow not merely peace but gifts upon the Church. A stone depiction of the ☧ (Chi Rho).
    • Christ as lawgiver 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Christ now portrayed as a lawgiver as opposed to the Good Shepherd (as seen in ICN0111). Sarcophagi fragment, Christ between apostles Peter and Paul.
    • Christ in a manger 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      But the perils of the imperial iconography are that it tempts me to do as medieval popes, as crusaders, as all those who have fought holy wars have been tempted to do, as well as those religious who today emulate corporate ...
    • Christian sarcophagus with the departed, Jonah, and Eucharistic feast 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      There was initially a thin line between honoring one's departed with a very expensive sarcophagus depicting Christian scenes including that of the Eucharist and honoring the martyr-hero (Christ the initial martyr-hero) ...
    • Close-up of Arch of Galerius 

      Bruggink, Donald J.
      Close-up of suppliants worshipping emperor.
    • Close-up of Christ enthroned 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the central section of the sarcophagus of Junius Bassius we find Christ enthroned as lawgiver. The law in his hand being given to Peter while Paul stands at his right. Beneath him is a personification of the cosmos ...
    • Close-up of Christ holding cross as lance 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      On the superb sarcophagus of Sextus Petronius Probus of 395 AD stands Christ surrounded by the apostles his cross held in the very same position as the emperor held his lance as a symbol of authority and in his hand he ...
    • Co-reigning emperors astride symbols of the cosmos 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Galerius as a co-reigning emperor would by necessity have portrayed himself with his counterpart astride the cosmos as cosmic emperors. Close-up of Triumphal arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki, Via Ignatia.
    • Endymion 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      Endymion being covered with the gift of eternal sleep by the cherubim. Whenever we see either of them in their eternal repose, they have their right arms cocked behind their heads.
    • Feast of the martyr-hero/Eucharist 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 19)
      Close-up of the feast on the sarcophagus found in the Museo delle Terme.
    • Front of ambo 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      On the face of the sarcophagus we have the familiar representation of Christ delivering the law in the presence of the apostles, while again he stands upon the world throne from which flow rivers of living water and before ...
    • Jonah overboard 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      In the first scene, Jonah is being thrown from the ship into the mouth of the sea monster. Close up of lower center left, Jonah being thrown to the Cetus.
    • Jonah regurgitated 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      The next scene on the Jonah sarcophagus is the Cetus regurgitating Jonah as a symbol of resurrection: "For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale so will the son of man be three days and three ...
    • Jonah sarcophagus 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      At this early date the Rome and Provence sarcophagi share still another figure with earlier pagan iconography, that of Jonah. Jonah sarcophagus frontal. Upper left-the raising of Lazarus; left of center- Moses striking the ...
    • Jonah under cucurbitas 

      Bruggink, Donald J. (Western Theological Seminary (Holland, Michigan), 1971)
      So too, Jonah beneath his gourd always has an arm behind his head. And therein the Biblical story becomes distorted, for the cucurbitas in Scripture is a parable of God's mercy. A petulant Jonah is disturbed with a merciful ...